"Bible Chronology" (published in April, 1974). Part I - Chronology of the Divine Plan of Ages
BETWEEN THE JEWISH AGE AND THE GOSPEL AGE
The length of the Jewish Age and the Gospel Age is proved from the Bible Chronology to be exactly 1845 years, so that any date in the former has its parallel date in the latter 1845 years afterwards (See diagram No. 6). It is important to recognize that "time-parallels," to be of any value, must correspond in events as well as in dates.
In addition to those already indicated there are a number of striking parallels in the two Ages, which help to confirm our understanding of the times and seasons; they correspond so closely that we cannot doubt they were so arranged by our loving heavenly Father, that the faith of his consecrated children might be strengthened in Him, and in his great Plan of the Ages.
In the year 606 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar laid the holy land desolate and took the Jewish king and nation captive to Babylon, where they remained till the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, who, after the overthrow of the Babylonian kingdom, released the Jews from bondage and at the same time issued an edict allowing them to return to the site of Jerusalem to rebuild the temple (2 Chron. 36:11-23). This was in 536 B.C., 70 years after the beginning of the universal empire of Babylonia.
Although Cyrus released the Jewish nation from the yoke of Babylon, this freedom was merely typical of the full liberty which Fleshly Israel shall experience at the end of the "Times of the Gentiles," when the greater Cyrus, Christ, shall release it from the humiliating bondage of the kingdoms of this world, and from the oppression of the "god of this world," Satan. This work of Christ will be the complete antitypical fulfillment of the work of Cyrus; but during the Gospel Age we can see a partial fulfillment in connection with Spiritual Israel, which was in bondage to the great apostate system of Papacy, denominated in the Scriptures "Babylon the Great," because its whole ritual is founded upon the iniquitous religious system of ancient Babylon (Rev. 17:3-6).
The books of Ezra and Nehemiah give a history of the Jewish nation from after the end of its 70 years' bondage in Babylon; and from these records we learn that a distinct work of reformation was carried on at that time in this Fleshly House of Israel. When we refer to the pages of Church history, we find that, in the parallel period in the Gospel Age, a corresponding reformatory work was in progress in the Spiritual House.
C. T. Russell clearly shows in Volume Ill of "Studies in the Scriptures," pages 69-82, that "Babylon the Great" was fully set up in power in 539 A.D., having been gradually and stealthily assuming form even since the days of the Apostles (2 Thess. 2:7). But in 1309 A.D., exactly 1845 years after the fall of ancient Babylon, the power of antitypical Babylon the Great was broken; for in that year the Papal See was transferred from Rome to Avignon in the south of France (536 + 1309 = 1845).
This exodus of the centre of the Apostate Church from Rome, its seat of power,1) is called in history "The Babylonish captivity of the Papacy," owing to the fact that it remained in exile for a period of about 70 years, during which time it was under the dictation of the king of France. In consequence of this humiliation and breaking of the power of Babylon the Great in 1309 A.D., the true Church of God, the "Israelites indeed," who had been in bondage in this idolatrous system for 770 years (1309 – 539 = 770), were released; even as the Fleshly Israelites had been similarly released after their 70 years' bondage in typical Babylon of old.
1) Rev. 17:9. "There never has been any difficulty in the mind of any enlightened Protestant in identifying the woman 'sitting on seven mountains,' and having on her forehead the name written, 'Mystery, Babylon the Great,' with the Roman apostasy. No other city in the world has ever been celebrated, as the city of Rome has, for its situation on seven hills. Pagan poets and orators, who had no thought of elucidating prophecy, have alike characterized it as the 'seven-hilled city.' Propertius speaks of it as 'The lofty city on seven hills, which governs the whole world' (Lib. Ill, Eleg. 9, p. 721). Its 'governing the whole world' is just the counterpart of the Divine statement – 'which reigneth over the kings of the earth' (Rev. 17:18). To call Rome the city 'of the seven hills' was by its citizens held to be as descriptive as to call it by its own proper name. Hence Horace speaks of it by reference to its seven hills alone, when he addresses 'The gods, who have set their affections on the seven hills' (Carmen Seculare, Volume VII, page 497). Martial, in like manner, speaks of 'The seven dominating mountains' (Lib. IV, Ep. 64, p. 254).
Now, while this characteristic of Rome has ever been well marked and defined, it has always been easy to show that the Church, which has its seat and headquarters on the seven hills of Rome, might most appropriately be called 'BabyIon,' inasmuch as it is the chief seat of idolatry under the new Testament, as the ancient Babylon was the chief seat of idolatry under the old. It has been known all along that Popery was baptized Paganism; but God is now making it manifest that the Paganism which Rome has baptized is, in all its essential elements." ("The Two Babylons," by Rev. Alexander Hislop)
Just as after its subjection in Babylon for the typical period of 70 years, the Jewish nation was allowed to return to Jerusalem in order that other features of the Lord's great Plan might be worked out; so "Babylon the Great," which is to be finally destroyed at the end of the Gospel Age, was allowed to regain a large measure of its power after the end of its typical period of 70 years humiliation in Avignon. Nevertheless, the Reformation movement gained a decided footing in 1309 A.D.; and historians of the Middle Ages tell us that our study of the history of the Reformation must begin with Avignon.
Up to that time the head of Papacy had sway over the world, being virtually "king of kings," and "lord of lords." Boniface VIII had been installed in office in 1295 A.D. He was more arrogant than, any previous pope; and it was this arrogance which led to Papacy's humiliation. When the great apostate Church was at the summit of its power, in the very middle of the Papal millennial reign (See diagram No. 5), he issued the famous bull called "Unam Sanctam," in which he claimed not only temporal and spiritual authority, but further, that no man could get eternal salvation except by his sanction.
The king of France, Philip the Fair, was sufficiently enlightened to see the emptiness of this monstrous claim, and he repudiated the bull and was in consequence excommunicated. Philip then did something which had never before been attempted during the period of Papal supremacy – he made the pope prisoner, just as Napoleon did about five hundred years later. Boniface, being an aged man, died from the indignities and injuries received. His successor died within a year. Finally, Clement V, who had sold himself to the king of France, was appointed; but he was afraid to live in Rome. Being he vassal of the French king he transferred the Papal See to Avignon in 1309 A.D., and there began the "Babylonish Captivity of the Papacy."
Seven popes in succession ruled in Avignon till 1378 A.D.; and as they were all under the dominion of France, the other kingdoms of Britain, Germany, Switzerland, etc., refused to have the pope act as their umpire and arbitrator as formerly, knowing that his decisions would be the dictates of Philip. It is thus plainly evident that the universal power of "Babylon the Great" was broken in 1309 A.D.; and the captive Spiritual Israelites were allowed freedom to lay the foundations of the Reformed Church – the Spiritual Temple.
But only the foundations of the Spiritual Temple of the Reformation were laid in 1309 A.D., just as at the parallel date in the Jewish Age, 536 B.C., only the foundations of the House of the Lord were then laid. In both cases enemies stopped the work. It was not until 521-517 B.C.1) that the material temple was completed in the Jewish Age; and in the parallel Gospel Age it was not until the corresponding years, 1324-1328 A.D., that the Spiritual Temple was built by Marsiglio, who is sometimes called "the morning star of the Reformation."
1) From Ezra 4:24; 6:15, we learn that building operations upon the temple were resumed in the 2nd, and finished in the 6th, year of the reign of Darius Hystaspes king of Persia. Ussher's chronology gives 520 B.C. as the 2nd year of Darius; but Prof. Rawlinson points out in his work "Five Great Monarchies," Vol. Ill, pp. 404, 408, that while Darius mounted the throne on 1st January 521 B.C., his second year of reign, according to Jewish reckoning, began to count from Spring-time three months later; so that the 6th month of the 2nd year of Darius would still be in the year 521 B.C. (See Ezra 5:2; Haggai 1:14, 15).
We shall leave the proofs that Marsiglio was in many respects a greater Reformer than any who succeeded him. We need mention that Marsiglio was the author of a book, which, when we consider the grossly superstitious day in which it was written, is a truly wonderful production. In this publication, issued in 1324 A.D., he advocated Republicanism, contending that there should be no kings; and that there ought not to be any division between clergy and laity. That the Church should have nothing whatever to do with temporal affairs, and should own no property. He claimed that Saint Peter never had been in Rome, but that even if it could be proved he had been there, it was certain he had not founded the Papal Church; and in any case the holding of the "keys" merely constituted Peter the turn-key, and not the Judge. Christ was the Judge; and the people had the right of freedom of conscience. By these and many other telling points Marsiglio undoubtedly built the temple of the Reformation. He forged the bolts which were effectively used by succeeding Reformers. His great ambition was to establish Republicanism, but he realized that it could not hold in this early day, for the mass of the people had yet too much reverence for the Divine right of kings and clergy. Only the true Spiritual Israelites experienced their freedom of conscience consequent upon the breaking of the power of Babylon the Great.
Marsiglio recognized that the Church should be in subjection to the Gentile powers, and not lord over them, and therefore he aimed at pulling down the Papal supremacy. With this object in view he sought for some king whom he might appoint as Emperor of the West, in imitation of Charles the Great, who would be superior to the pope and thus make the secular power supreme.
In the year 1326 A.D., two years after the publication of his epoch-making book, he found what he wanted. King Louis of Bavaria was then quarreling with the pope in Avignon, and Marsiglio took advantage of this quarrel, which was insignificant in itself, to forward his daring scheme. With a band of enthusiastic followers he approached king Louis and explained his project. Louis was well pleased with the proposal, and accompanied the band to Rome. The people of Rome readily received the king, being angered at the pope's residence in Avignon. So long as the Papal See was in Avignon, Rome was neglected; the people of other countries, with their money, were now all diverted to Avignon where the pope held his court. The prospect of having the Papal See restored to Rome greatly pleased the inhabitants, and king Louis was received with acclamation.
In the year 1328 A.D. Louis was crowned Emperor of the West. This was the summit of Marsiglio's reforming work; in that very year he died; and Louis, who was a man of little ability and full of superstition, being now deprived of his clever counsellor, abandoned his post and fled from Rome.
The work of Marsiglio was thus finished in four years, just as the work on the material temple in the Jewish Age was completed in about four years. But as the temple, built in four years, was used for the purpose for which it was erected; so the four years' work of Marsiglio was used for its special purpose, namely, the organization of the great Reformation of the Gospel Age.
The temple being now ready it was necessary to replace in it the holy vessels, that the House of God might be used in accordance with the law. This important phase of the Reformation in the Jewish Age was accomplished under the leadership of Ezra, who, in the 7th year of Artaxerxes, Spring of 468 B.C. (Artaxerxes began to reign in the year 474 B.C. His 7th year would therefore be 468 B.C., and his 20th year 455 B.C.), left Babylon and restored the vessels to the temple (Ezra 7:6-). We read, also, that Ezra was well informed in the Law of the Lord, and that he instructed the people, who were from all the twelve tribes of Israel (Ezra 6:17; 8:25), and did a great cleansing work among them.
The parallel year in the Gospel Age is 1378 A.D., a very prominent date in the history of the Church Reformation period. It was in 1378 A.D. that the great Reformer Wycliffe left Babylon the Great, and restored to the true Spiritual Temple class many precious truths and doctrines which had for long been misappropriated and hidden in the idolatrous Papal system. On the 27th of March in the Spring-time of the year 1378 A.D., which was 1845 year after Ezra left Babylon with the vessels for the material temple, the pope in Avignon died; and immediately there arose what is historically known as the "Great Papal Schism."
The people of Rome determined to put an end to the Papal exile, and appointed a pope in Rome as in former times. The king of France, of course, did not want to lose his power over the Papacy, and he appointed another in Avignon, so that there were now two popes in office. These popes naturally quarrelled, each claiming that he only was the true vicar of Christ. They called one another blasphemous names, each accusing the other of being the Antichrist (and in this, at least, both were correct).
Wycliffe up to this time had been a Reformer within the Church system; but when the Schism took place his eyes were opened to the true Babylonish character of the Papacy, and he came out as the great Doctrinal Reformer. Beginning an English translation of the Bible, it was not long before he saw that the doctrine of transubstantiation was false. This error takes away the true doctrine of the Ransom-sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ. When Wycliffe fully realised this he began to instruct the Temple class, and pointed out to them the pure Scriptural teaching on this question. He showed them how Jesus Christ died for sin once and for all, and that therefore sacrifices of the Mass were not only unnecessary, but blasphemous. He also drew attention to the errors of the adoration of the virgin Mary, of the worship of the dead saints, of the claim that penance would atone for sin, etc.
By teaching the Temple class the truth Wycliffe's cleansing and reforming work was in exact correspondence with the work of Ezra, the great Reformer of the Jewish Age.
It was 13 years after Ezra left Babylon that the next phase of the Jewish Reformation took place. Nehemiah then received his commission to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 2), and at end of the 6th month of that year the walls were finished (Neh. 6:15), and there began the period of "69 weeks," or 483 years, to the coming of the Messiah (Dan. 9:25). In this work of building the walls of Jerusalem Nehemiah buttressed up the national system of the Fleshly House of Israel. So, also, 13 years after Wycliffe left Babylon the Great, the Reformer John Huss of Bohemia received his commission to buttress the Reformation walls of Spiritual Jerusalem (Rev. 21:2); for the work of Huss made the Reformation movement of the Gospel Age a national force, and thus helped to protect the true Spiritual Israelites.
It was in 1391 A.D., exactly 1845 years after Nehemiah, that he might be said to have received his commission to rebuild the walls of Spiritual Jerusalem; for it was in that year that Huss became acquainted with the works of Wycliffe (See Blackie's Modern Cyclopedia, Vol. IV., page 483). Prof. Lodge, in his Close of the Middle Ages, page 207, says: "The systematic teaching of Huss was for the most part derived from the great English teacher, John Wycliffe. It is important to remember that the Hussite movement had a secular as well as an ecclesiastical side." And in Burnet's History of the Reformation, page 9, we read: "Before the end of the 14th century Wycliffe had extended his line of attack to some of the special doctrines of the Western theology: but the movement which he began, though its effects were evanescent in his own country, became in the hands of more stimulating advocates [of whom Huss was the leader] a genuine national force in Bohemia." "Huss condemned Papacy's worldliness, its right of secular possessions, and objected to the supremacy of the pope. The Bible, according to him, ought to be the sole rule of faith" (See Europe in the Middle Ages, page 539, by Thatcher and Schwill).
By the foregoing it is evident that there was a similarity in the reform work of Nehemiah and Huss, and as both had a national as well as a religious aspect they each formed a good starting-point for the "70 weeks" mentioned by Daniel (Dan. 9:24, 25. See diagram No. 6). This period of 70 weeks is stated as 7 weeks, and 62 weeks, and 1 week. We may not know the exact reason for this peculiar division, but we desire to draw attention to the fact that the 7 weeks, or 49 years, point to 405 B.C., about the time of Malachi the prophet, who did a reforming work by exposing the abuses of his day.
In the Gospel Age the 7 weeks bring us to the parallel date 1440 A.D., the time of the invention of printing, which did almost more than anything else to carry on the great work of the Reformation. Referring to this factor in the Reformation movement, Archbishop Trench in Medieval Church History, page 423, says: "Then while abuses were never rifer, while the lives of the clergy were never fuller of scandal, while the Papal court was never more venal, nor could less endure the beating upon it of that fierce light which leaves nothing hid, – the invention of printing (1440) multiplied a thousandfold every voice which was raised to proclaim an abuse or to denounce a corruption. And marching hand in hand with this wonderous invention there was the 'Revival of Learning.'"
Then followed the period of 62 weeks to the coming of Jesus the Messiah in Autumn 29 A.D. This period of the Jewish Age is Scripturally a blank, for the historical canon of the Old Testament ends with Ezra and Nehemiah, and the prophetic books with Malachi. Nevertheless we know that toward the end of that period a distinct falling away in the spirit of the Reformation had occurred, and that the Fleshly House of Israel had divided broadly into two parties, one, the Pharisees, holding to the traditions of the elders, and binding themselves faster and faster in those traditions. The other party, the Saducees, were free-thinkers, doubting and criticizing the Bible; they denied the resurrection, and began to interfere more in the world's politics. Thus when in "due time" the Messiah came to his own, we read that his own received him not (John 1:11-13). To the small remnant who did receive him was given the wonderful privilege of becoming "Sons of God."
During the corresponding period of 62 weeks in the Gospel Age, from 1440 to 1874 A.D., a similar movement took place in Nominal Spiritual Israel, misnamed Christendom. At first the good work of reform went on, but toward the end the reforming spirit grew less, and during this interval two general parties were originated. One party held to the Bible, saying that they believed every word of it, though what they really held to was the traditions and creeds of the Dark Ages. The other party, the free-thinkers, began to criticize the Bible, disbelieving great portions of it, and dabbling in the politics of the kingdoms of this world. Even as the two parties at the end of the Jewish Age continued after our Lord's first Advent until the great trouble in the year 70 A.D. (and next in the years 132-135 – annotation) destroyed the nation; so we still have the two main parties with us today, the one binding themselves more firmly in the traditions of the Fathers (these are the "tares"); while the other is going more and more into open infidelity (these are the higher critics, evolutionists, etc.). In due time these shall all be "burned up" in the great time of trouble. The results of the falling away from the spirit of the Reformation was that, when our Lord came again at his second Advent in 1874 A.D., his own received him not; but again, those few who have received him have had the blessed privilege of becoming Sons of God, and hope soon to be joined with Christ in the glorious work of blessing all the families of the earth with human Restitution.
REST AND RESTITUTION
The Apostle Paul explains that the Law was a "shadow of good things to come," and that the experiences of the children of Israel "happened unto them as types, and are written for our admonition on whom the ends of the Ages have come" (Heb. 10:1; 1 Cor. 10:10, margin). Now, times and seasons constituted an important feature of the ordinances and experiences of the Jewish nation.
In Exod. 20:8-11 we read: "Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt do no work (...) for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." Also from Lev. 25:1-5 we learn that the people of Israel were commanded to let the land rest every seventh year. "According to the Apostle we must regard the sabbath day, and the sabbath year, as types (Col. 2:16, 17).
The seventh day of rest of the Great Jehovah began after he created man. For a short period Adam had dominion over the earth under the sovereignty of his Creator; we therefore understand that God's rest would not begin till the Fall, when the whole world was abandoned to its fate because of the disobedience of its federal head Adam. From that time till the flood God permitted the angels, and after the flood he has permitted Satan, to exercise the controlling power over man. During the Millennial Age Christ will reign. Accordingly, it will not be until "the thousand years" are finished and God has resumed his sovereignty, that his great "Rest Day" will have ended. Thenceforth, the perfect man will once more have dominion over the earth under the sovereignty of his Creator.
The harmony of the diagram we are now considering (No.8), and also of several other diagrams shown on the summary chart (part 1), gives us reason to believe that the short period of innocence between the creation and fall of Adam was two years. As the Bible dates show that Adam was created in 4128 B.C., his fall took place is 4126 B.C. From then till 1874 A.D. (the date of our Lord's return) was six thousand years. One thousand years more will bring us to the time when Christ will deliver up the Kingdom to the Father (1 Cor. 15:23-28). Thus, God's sabbath day comprises a period of seven thousand years in all. It is probable that the six preceding "days" during which God pursued his works of creation were likewise periods of seven thousand years – See diagram).
Although God entered into his rest after he passed the sentence of death upon Adam, Jesus intimated that his Father had nevertheless been working – "My Father worketh hitherto, and I work" (John 5:17). This does not seem in agreement with the statement that God was resting; but when we recall the occasion on which Jesus uttered these words the explanation is clear. Jesus had just cured a man who had been paralyzed from his birth, and the Jews had rebuked him for working on the sabbath day. Jesus' answer shows that his cavillers had not rightly interpreted the Law, for works of mercy on the sabbath day do not violate God's Law of Love. Quite to the contrary, love dictated these works. Hitherto the Father had been working during His rest day, in so restraining the wrath of man, and overruling the affairs of earth, that eventually the poor world's salvation from the miry clay of sin and from the dreadful Pit of death might be accomplished! Which of the Jews having an ox or ass fall into a pit on the sabbath day, would not immediately draw it out? How much more, then, would the love of God dictate the rescue of his beloved Son from the grave on his great sabbath day (The Great Sabbath Day is this Day of 7000 years of the God's Rest – annotation). The raising of our Lord from the dead was the beginning of the "New Creation," and was the supreme evidence of God's mighty power (Eph. 1:18-23).
The Apostle in 2 Pet. 3:8 says: "Be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day." From this standpoint we may regard the period of seven thousand years from the fall of Adam to the end of the Millennium as a "week," each "day" of which is a thousand years long. The first period of one thousand years forms the First Adam's "day," referred to by God when he said to Adam: "in the day thou eatest thereof dying thou shalt die." Adam died within his 1000-year day (Gen. 2:17; 5:5).
The seventh period of one thousand years is the "day" appointed by God during which the "Last Adam" shall judge the world in righteousness (Acts 17:31; 1 Cor. 15:45, 47). Jesus said: "The Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day" (Matt. 12:8). This is one of the proofs that Christ's Second Advent was due to begin in 1874 A.D., for if he is "Lord of the sabbath" we would reasonably expect him to be present immediately his seventh 1000-year "day" began.
The Israelites were commanded by God to let the land rest every seventh year, counting from the time they entered Canaan, i.e., from the year 1575 B.C. (See Bible dates, p.p. 3-5). After seven of these cycles of seven years, or 49 in all, the next year, the 50th, was to be a special sabbath or rest year, called the jubilee. Thus the 49th and 50th years were both sabbaths. In the former the land was to have its rest, and in the latter not only was the land to rest, but there was to be a restitution of all things (Lev. 25:8-10). God foretold through Moses, however, that the Jewish nation would never properly observe these sabbath years (Lev. 26:34, 35); they were principally intended to serve as types of a greater sabbath or jubilee year. In spite of their continued iniquity God was long-suffering with the Israelites. Many times it seemed as if he would cause their overthrow, but it was not till 606 B.C. that he permitted the Gentiles to remove their crown, and carry them into captivity. The land then laid desolate for seventy years to fulfill its sabbaths (2 Chron. 36:11-21).
The Lord thus indicated that 70 jubilee years in all should have been observed. For the long period of 969 years during which the people of Israel were in possession of their land, they were permitted by God to observe, if they would, their jubilee years; but when he overthrew their kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar this privilege was taken out of their hands. Never thereafter could the jubilee be kept by the Jews, for the "times of the Gentiles" had now begun, and they were merely servants in the land after the end of the 70 years desolation (Neh. 9:36, 37). Thus the typical jubilee years ceased in 626 B.C., that is, 950 years after the nation entered Canaan under Joshua.
Jesus said: "Verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled" (Matt. 5:18). The jubilee years typified the great "Times of Restitution of all things," at the beginning of which, the Apostle Peter intimated, Jesus Christ was to be sent from heaven (Acts 3:19-21). As the date of the Second Advent of Christ is 1874 A.D., there is apparently in this feature of the law a long interval between type and antitype. But according to the declaration of Jesus just quoted, it is not possible for any part of the law to cease until it is fulfilled in its antitype. It is clear, therefore, that the period of the "Times of Restitution" does not completely fulfill the jubilee type. The method by which the Israelites were instructed to calculate the precise year when they were to sound the trumpet of jubilee, namely, the cycle of 7 times 7 years, is also an important part of the type, and should have its corresponding antitype. This is evidently the Lord's arrangement, that just as in the type the beginning of the jubilee year was fixed by squaring the small cycles of sabbath years (7x7), so in the antitype the commencement of the grand Jubilee is to be fixed by squaring the larger cycles of jubilee years (50 x 50).
Lev. 25:9 shows that the year of jubilee began in the seventh month, which, according to the Jewish reckoning, fell in Autumn (p.p. 6-8). It follows from this that the last typical jubilee ended in Autumn of 626 B.C. There the fulfillment of the type immediately began with the grand antitypical cycle of 50 x 50, or 2500 years, which leads up to the grand antitypical Jubilee of a thousand years – the Millennium.
In this wonderful way our heavenly Father pointed forward to the glorious jubilee work of Restitution which will be under the control of his dear Son Jesus Christ; for 2500 years from 625,25 B.C. (Autumn of 626 B.C.) ends in Autumn 1875 AD), i.e., the first year of the seventh 1000-year period since the fall of Adam. The other time prophecies show that the precise time of our Lord's return was Autumn 1874. The antitypical cycle therefore overlaps the last Adam's "Day" by one year; but as we shall see, the harmony of the diagram (page 32) proves that even this feature was Divinely arranged.
As in the type it would require the whole jubilee year to restore to the people their land and other possessions, so in the antitypical times of restitution the whole thousand years will be required to restore to man all that was lost by father Adam.
The first fortnight in the type corresponds proportionately to the first forty years in the antitype. We could not expect much work of restoration to be done in that short time; it would be a time rather of demanding rights and investigating claims (If we would infer years 1874-1984 as the time of the expectation the Kingdom, then period of 110 years would correspond to the 40 days of the antitypical jubilee – annotation). Because of innate selfishness angry disputes would be sure to follow the proclamation of the jubilee, and many claims would require to be settled at the gate. Thus the typical year of liberty would be inaugurated in much trouble; but eventually both rich and poor, who were pure in heart, would agree that the Lord's arrangement was best, and would gladly acquiesce to the new conditions. The declaration of the Scriptures is, that the Millennial reign of Christ, the great Times of Restitution, will be inaugurated by a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation (Dan. 12:1,4; Matt. 24:21).
The people have heard the "trumpet" of liberty and are learning to appreciate their freedom; they are demanding their rights to the land and other earthly possessions. The rich are clinging to their vested interests and are not likely to relinquish their hold. With human nature as it is, force must be applied; the people, having began to taste the sweets of liberty, and finding their aspirations and desires for freedom and happiness frustrated, will break away from all restraints, and anarchy must follow. Thus violently will the Present Evil World be brought to an end; but when the Lord, the Prince of Peace, stills the tempest and begins to bestow restitution blessings upon the poor fallen race; when the resurrection proceeds and severed families are reunited; when good deeds are quickly rewarded and evil deeds receive a certain and just punishment, then all men will recognize that they have now a loving and righteous Judge, and eventually every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Phil. 2:10, 11).
While the jubilee year with its preceding cycle typifies the great antitypical Jubilee of 1000 years with its preceding cycle of 2500 years, there is a still greater fulfillment. The period of seven thousand years may, as we have already indicated, be taken as representing a "week of years," each "year" of which equals a thousand years. The Millennial Day of the Lord is, therefore, also the seventh or sabbath "year." In the same way the six "days" of creation preceding God's rest will each represent a week of similar "years." The seven "weeks of years" will amount to 49 of these 1000-year periods. Accordingly, the next 1000-year period is the 50th of the whole series, and we have thus an enormous cycle of 49 "years," each of which is one thousand years long, followed by a Jubilee which will be without end, a Grand Jubilee of Jubilees.
From this standpoint the Millennium is the sabbath year of the Lord, and following it is the Grand Jubilee – two great antitypical Rest-Years.
In the first chapter of Genesis each of the six "days" of creation are divided into an "evening" and a "morning." The great seventh "day" of Jehovah may also be equally divided into an "evening" and a "morning." The central point of this great 7000-year day is the date Autumn 627 B.C., i.e., the end of the 49th year of the last typical cycle, and the beginning of the last typical jubilee year (See diagram, page 32). This means that there were two rest-years, a sabbath year and the last typical jubilee year, exactly in the centre of the seven-thousand-year day of God's Rest. In all the "evening" period of 3500 years there was not a single antitype, nothing but types and shadows. The "morning" period, on the other hand, is the era of antitypes. In the beginning of it there were still types, but the first antitype, namely, the great antitypical cycle of 50 x 50 years, began at the very commencement of this "morning" period.
The fact that the last pair of typical rest-years occur in the exact centre of the whole 7000-year period, other symmetric chronological parallels are rendered possible. The two years of rest in the Garden of Eden are followed by the First Adam's 1000-year day, the day of condemnation for the world, the day of the loss of all things. Then, overlapping one year with the First Adam's day comes a large cycle of 2500 years. In the centre there are two typical rest-years marked off. These are followed by a second large cycle of 2500 years which overlaps one year with the Last Adam's 1000-year "Day," the Day of Salvation for the world, when all that was lost in the First Adam's day of condemnation will be restored to mankind by the Second Adam.
We are reminded here of the words spoken by the prophet Habakkuk: "O Lord, revive thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known; in wrath remember mercy" (Hab. 3:2). God's wrath or curse passed upon Adam and his descendants will not be removed until by the and of the seven thousand years the last enemy, the Adamic death, will be completely destroyed (1 Cor. 15:25,26). At that time the restitution of man to perfection and to communion with God will be complete. In the exact centre of this wrath period of 7000 years, God revived his work by instituting the "Morning" of antitypes, and so in wrath remembered mercy. In the midst of the wrath period, also, he caused his people Israel to observe the last pair of typical rest-years, and so made known to us his wondrous plan of providing two great antitypical rest-years at the end.
Not only, however, was the wonderful and merciful work of the two great antitypical rest-years at the end foreshadowed by the two typical rest-years in the centre of the wrath period, but it was also typified by the two rest-years in the Garden of Eden. In the first of these years Adam was created perfect in mind and body. He had perfect faculties; but he would require to learn how to use them properly. He would also require to learn his environment, and thus gradually take possession of the dominion which God had given him (Gen. 1:26). Very soon, however, he began to feel a want; although the animals were obedient to Adam and useful in many ways, yet none of them was a companion meet for him (Gen. 2:20). God knew that this would be so, but he judged it best that Adam should learn his need by experience. Adam was sent into a deep sleep, and after a short season of trouble, God presented Eve to him. Though we can but faintly realize the mutual love of the perfect man and woman, still we can understand that while the first year was a time of peace and enjoyment to Adam, the second year must have been a time of much greater happiness. These two years typify certain aspects of the great rest-years at the end.
Let us now consider the two rest-years in the centre of the 7000-year period. The first of these was a sabbath year, being the 49th of the last typical cycle. During that year the Israelites did no work on the land, and it was therefore a time of rest for the land, and of rest and refreshment for the children of Abraham, the children of God.
The following year, the 50th, was a jubilee, the time of the restitution of all things, and a time of great rejoicing, especially for the poor and oppressed, and latterly for all who were pure in heart. But at the beginning of that year there must have been a season of trouble. These two years foreshadow additional aspects of the great antitypical rest-years.
We have already seen that the 1000-year period which began in Autumn 1874 A.D. is the 49th from the beginning of the "days" of creation, and the 7th from the fall of Adam, and that, therefore, it may be regarded as a great "sabbath year" In that "year," called the Millennial Age, men will gradually acquire perfect faculties, and through the exercise of these perfect faculties they will learn their environment, and thus will gradually take possession of the earthly kingdom which was prepared for them from the foundation of the world (Matt. 25:34). This will be a time of rest for the children or seed of Abraham, who will nevertheless be working in raising fallen men from the pit of death. The work of these children of Abraham, spiritual and natural, will be dictated by love. By the end of the thousand years they will have restored all men to perfection.
Then will begin the 50th 1000-year period, the Grand Jubilee of Jubilees. This Jubilee of Jubilees, however, will not really be a thousand years long, but will last to all eternity! At its commencement, just as at the beginning of Adam's second year, and at the beginning of the typical jubilee, there will be a short season of trouble. The trouble may last, possibly, for 40 years (Diagram No. 3, on page 22A), and will be owing to the loosing of Satan who had been bound during the preceding thousand year (Rev. 20:1-3). But when this final test of men's obedience to their Creator is past, and the disobedient are destroyed with Satan in the second death, all the loyal will be called the children of God and will live on into the Ages of glory to follow. The most important feature of their rejoicing will be the restoration of perfect communion with God and with one another. God will have such confidence in men that he will grant them eternal life with complete dominion over the earth. "There will be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, nor will there be any more pain, for the former things will have passed away" (Rev. 21:4).
The Apostle Peter informs us in his first epistle (3:20, 21) that the flood, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit, stand to each other in the relation of type and antitype: "When the patience of God was waiting in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were carried safely through the water. And immersion [baptism], an antitype of this, now saves us."
It is evident that the Apostle is referring to the real immersion, of which the immersion into water is only a symbol – it is the real and not the symbolic immersion that saves us. The water of baptism symbolizes the death-state. Accordingly, the destruction of the first "World of the ungodly" in water, typified the death-state into which this "Present Evil World" is passing. The ark represents the Divine plan of salvation, and Christ as the embodiment of that plan. Just as God was patient and long-suffering with the iniquity of men and angels while the ark of Noah was being prepared, so he was patient and long-suffering with the iniquity of men and angels while his glorious plan of salvation was being prepared through the Law and the Prophets (Luke 24:44). Again, just as the ark of Noah and the few who were in it were in the water, but were carried safely through it, so Christ and the few who were in him have been in the death-state, but are carried safely through it; for we who are saved by baptism will share in the glorious resurrection of Christ (Rom. 6:3-5).
We now find that, not only was the flood typical of the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but their commencements are chronologically parallel. The flood or typical baptism began 654 years after the beginning of the first cycle of 2500 years. The antitypical baptism of the Holy Spirit began with the baptism of Jesus in Autumn 29 A.D.; and there he became the Christ or the Anointed One, the Ark of God. This was 654 years after the beginning of the second cycle of 2500 years (625,25 B.C. plus 28,75 A.D. equal 654 years). The period of 1846 years from the beginning of the typical immersion was followed by two typical rest-years; so a corresponding period of 1846 years from the beginning of the antitypical baptism is followed by the two great antitypical Rest-Years. Thus it is clear that God marked off the immersion of Noah's ark in the waters of the flood, chronologically as the type of the immersion of Christ, who is the antitypical Ark, into death; for Christ's death began at, and was symbolized by, his water immersion at Jordan.
Added by: Andrzej